Sandra Junglen Dissertation Proposal

  • 1.

    de Groot RJ, Cowley JA, Enjuanes L, Faaberg KS, Perlman S, Rottier PJM, Snijder EJ, Ziebuhr J, Gorbalenya AE (2012) Order Nidovirales. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (eds) Virus taxonomy. Ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 785–795Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Faaberg KS, Balasuriya UB, Brinton MA, Gorbalenya AE, Leung FC-C, Nauwynck H, Snijder EJ, Stadejek T, Yang H, Yoo D (2012) Family Arteriviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (eds) Virus taxonomy. Ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 796–805Google Scholar

  • 3.

    de Groot RJ, Baker SC, Baric R, Enjuanes L, Gorbalenya AE, Holmes KV, Perlman S, Poon LL, Rottier PJM, Talbot PJ, Woo PCY, Ziebuhr J (2012) Family Coronaviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (eds) Virus taxonomy. Ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 806–828Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Cowley JA, Walker PJ, Flegel TW, Lightner DV, Bonami JR, Snijder EJ, de Groot RJ (2012) Family Roniviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (eds) Virus taxonomy. Ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 829–834Google Scholar

  • 5.

    Gorbalenya AE, Enjuanes L, Ziebuhr J, Snijder EJ (2006) Nidovirales: evolving the largest RNA virus genome. Virus Res 117:17–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 6.

    Nga PT, Parquet MD, Lauber C, Parida M, Nabeshima T, Yu FX, Thuy NT, Inoue S, Ito T, Okamoto K, Ichinose A, Snijder EJ, Morita K, Gorbalenya AE (2011) Discovery of the first insect nidovirus, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the largest RNA virus genomes. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 7.

    Zirkel F, Kurth A, Quan PL, Briese T, Ellerbrok H, Pauli G, Leendertz FH, Lipkin WI, Ziebuhr J, Drosten C, Junglen S (2011) An insect nidovirus emerging from a primary tropical rainforest. MBio 2:e00077-11Google Scholar

  • 8.

    Junglen S, Kurth A, Kuehl H, Quan PL, Ellerbrok H, Pauli G, Nitsche A, Nunn C, Rich SM, Lipkin WI, Briese T, Leendertz FH (2009) Examining landscape factors influencing relative distribution of mosquito genera and frequency of virus infection. EcoHealth 6:239–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 9.

    Chen Y, Cai H, Pan J, Xiang N, Tien P, Ahola T, Guo DY (2009) Functional screen reveals SARS coronavirus nonstructural protein nsp14 as a novel cap N7 methyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:3484–3489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 10.

    Enjuanes L, Almazan F, Sola I, Zuniga S (2006) Biochemical aspects of coronavirus replication and virus-host interaction. Ann Rev Microbiol 60:211–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 11.

    Pasternak AO, Spaan WJM, Snijder EJ (2006) Nidovirus transcription: how to make sense…? J Gen Virol 87:1403–1421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 12.

    Sawicki SG, Sawicki DL, Siddell SG (2007) A contemporary view of coronavirus transcription. J Virol 81:20–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 13.

    Cowley JA, Walker PJ (2002) The complete genome sequence of gill-associated virus of Penaeus monodon prawns indicates a gene organization unique among nidoviruses. Arch Virol 147:1977–1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 14.

    Schutze H, Ulferts R, Schelle B, Bayer S, Granzow H, Hoffmann B, Mettenleiter TC, Ziebuhr J (2006) Characterization of White bream virus reveals a novel genetic cluster of nidoviruses. J Virol 80:11598–11609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    Lauber C, Gorbalenya AE (2012) Partitioning the genetic diversity of a virus family: approach and evaluation through a case study of Picornaviruses. J Virol 86:3890–3904Google Scholar

  • 16.

    Lauber C, Gorbalenya AE (2012) Toward genetics-based virus taxonomy: comparative analysis of a genetics-based classification and the taxonomy of picornaviruses. J Virol 86:3905–3915Google Scholar

  • 17.

    Edgar RC (2004) MUSCLE: a multiple sequence alignment method with reduced time and space complexity. BMC Bioinformatics 5:113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 18.

    Gorbalenya AE, Lieutaud P, Harris MR, Coutard B, Canard B, Kleywegt GJ, Kravchenko AA, Samborskiy DV, Sidorov IA, Leontovich AM, Jones TA (2010) Practical application of bioinformatics by the multidisciplinary VIZIER consortium. Antiviral Res 87:95–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 19.

    Drummond AJ, Rambaut A (2007) BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evol Biol 7:214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Vector-borne diseases account for an estimated 17% of infectious diseases and cause more than 1 million deaths annually. RNA viruses, transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods (arboviruses), pose a particularly high risk as they can easily spread to new geographic regions where they may cause serious epidemics in naïve populations, such as by Zika-, chikungunya-, dengue- and Rift Valley fever viruses. Despite this high relevance, little is known about enzootic maintenance cycles and prevalence even for medically important arboviruses in the African countries of origin. Moreover, research of transmission cycles has mainly been focused on the role of mosquitoes as arboviral vectors. Other blood-feeding arthropods, such as ticks, biting midges and sandflies, have received considerable less attention. Relevant agents like Schmallenberg virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and phleboviruses are transmitted by these vectors.

    Situated at one of the most renowned African entomology institutes, this collaborative project aims at a comprehensive understanding of key arboviral diseases in Kenya, including the virus sources, the infection-related impacts on humans, as well as the societal conditions and consequences of arbovirus disease. A strong focus in all stages of research will be on training and capacity building for future independent work in an African research environment. The research will have a local and exemplary focus to enable efficient training and technology transfer, but will provide important outcomes due to the setting of the work in one of the key seeding regions of arbovirus diseases globally.

    The key objectives are (i) to study the disease ecology of relevant arboviruses in blood-feeding vectors, livestock and peri-domestic wildlife, (ii) to determine the impact of arboviral disease on human health and local society, involving complementary approaches from the fields of laboratory-based epidemiology and social sciences, and (iii) to provide training, education, and well-targeted capacity building in disease ecology, veterinary medicine and agro-social sciences, as well as virology.

    The generated data will promote the local control of key arboviral diseases and thereby limit the risk of spread of indigenous arboviruses to new geographic regions. 

    In cooperation with Prof. Christian Borgemeister (Centre for Development Research, Bonn), Prof. Rosemary Sang (Kenya Medical Research Institute and International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya), Prof. Baldwyn Torto, Dr. David Tchouassi (International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya)

    Funded by the DFG (Junglen JU 2857/9-1)



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