York University Assignment Format Sample

Submitting anonymous assignments using Yorkshare

Note: this guide has now been updated. To access the most up to date version of this guide click here.

This guide will explain the steps you must take when submitting an assignment via the anonymous assignment tool in the VLE set up by your tutor.

Note: It is important that you do not leave your submission until the last minute, so you have time to check the following things:

1. Is your file below 30MB in size? This is the size limit for any file submitted via the 'Anonymous Assignment' tool.

  • If you are submitting a Word document that contains a lot of images, this may increase your file size dramatically. If you are submitting an audio or video file as part of your assignment, you may also need to compress this file. See our student guide for Compressing File Sizes for further help and advice.

2. Have you anonymised your work? If you are not sure, see our quick guide on anonymising your work.

3. Is there a restriction on the types of files you can submit? This should be made clear when the assignment was issued and when you click on the link to 'submit anonymous assignment'.

Submitting your work

If you are required to submit work online a submission point should be created within a VLE site. From the submission point in your module site:

1.Click the Submit Anonymous Assignment link (see below).

You will now be presented with a web form from which you can submit your assignment. Any previous submissions you have made will be at the top of the submission page.

2. Check to ensure you comply with any restrictions to the types of files you can submit (see #3 above) and then [Choose file] and find the file on your computer.

3. There may be a comments box where you can leave comments for your tutor. Please remember not to identify yourself in the comments box by writing your name.

4. The form might also contain an exemplar opt out checkbox. Some departments would like to use examples from student essays to help future students learn about academic writing and marking criteria. All work used in this way is completely anonymised with the examination number removed. Tick this box if you do not want your essay to be included in a repository of work that may be used to teach future students.

5. Check that your exam number is correctly displayed in the Anonymity section and tick the box to confirm that you have anonymised the document.

6. Tick the checkbox in the Declaration section to confirm you have read and understood the University's ordinances and regulations regarding plagiarism and collusion.

7. Click [Submit].

8. You will now be presented with a receipt that shows that the assignment was successfully submitted, with the date and time of submission and link to the submitted file. You will also receive a submission number that you should retain a copy of. This information will also be emailed to your University of York email account.

9. Check that you have submitted the correct file by clicking the link in the receipt or return to the submissions page where previously submitted files will be listed at the top of the form (see above).

It is important that you don't leave your submission until the last minute, as the date and time that appears on your receipt will be what your department records as a final submission time.

Nathanael Ramoutar – 214621122. Assignment 1: How self-aware are you? “Critical thinkers are self -aware, curious, and independent. They introspect on their own thinking processes; they work at knowing their own biases and can name the strategies they are using when they make judgement”.1 Introspective and self-awareness are important characteristics of mangers because it allows them to make precise decisions and improve their leadership skills. They can take advice from others, but must rely on their own knowledge to make accurate choices that not only affect them but others around them. “Self-awareness of your strengths and weaknesses can net you the trust of others and increase your credibility-- both of which will increase your leadership effectiveness.” 2 1. Some of my strengths are simply the way I am, my attitude towards life includes be openminded, respectful, responsible, motivated, and good at problem solving and working hard. I also like to learn, progress and expand new strengths to be more productive. 2. I am precise and structured and prefer working on my own. When necessary I am team oriented and will do my part to ensure that work is accomplished. As part of a team, I learn when others contribute to any work, and welcome increasing my views on topics. 3. Honesty, accountability, discipline, thoroughness are some of the values I hold in everything I do. I believe that all these values put together helps build my character as an individual. 4. At this time, I am in the process of learning and developing to find my place and where I belong. My understanding of belonging to specific groups is not as important to me now, but with more insight I can make a decision that benefits me. 5. My knowledge, leadership, insight, perspective, and strategic thinking all qualities I can contribute to completing any task put in front of me. I can listen and learn from others to add to my understanding and growth. 1 2 Dyer, Linda. Critical thinking for business students/ Linda Dyer.- 2nd ed. (2011), 2 Chris Musselwhite. Self -Awareness and the Effective Leader. (2007) Bibliography 1. Linda Dyer (2011) Critical thinking for business students– 2nd ed. Concord, ON: Captus Press Inc. 2. Chris Musselwhite (2007) Self-Awareness and the Effective Leader. Retrieved from: http://www.inc.com/resources/leadership/articles/20071001/musselwhite.html Nathanael Ramoutar – 214621122 Assignment 2: Is bigger better? Sacrificed competitveness and ingnored managerial enterprise The company opporate a scale economy and a scope economy The larger your organization is, the better opportunity you have to thrive Cutting the cost of production to increase the company's profit Created multiple levels of leadership in a coporation to over see the production I found chandler’s claim more compelling from a business view. The purpose of creating a big company that has both national and international markets is to compete with rivals and grow your profit. By finding ways to reduce the cost of production and people to manage the different levels of production this will increase the company’s profit margin. When you’re a “first mover” you have the competitive advantage over rivals because you’ve been in the market longer and consumers are aware of your services and rely on your history rather new start-ups that compete in the same industry. According to the readings by chandler, the economy operates on both a scale and scope concept. Larger manufacturers can produce goods at a lower cost, and can create multiple products for the same material it uses. 1 1 Chandler, A. D. (1990). The Enduring Logic of Industrial Success. Harvard Business Review, 68(2), 130–140 Bibliography Chandler, A. D. (1990). The Enduring Logic of Industrial Success. Harvard Business Review, 68(2), 130–140. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/1990/03/the-enduring-logic-of-industrial-success Dyer, L. (2006) Critical thinking for business students/ Linda Dyer. – 2nd ed. Concord, ON: Captus Press Inc. 16-17 Schumacher, E. F. (1973). Small is beautiful: A study of economics as if people mattered. London: Blond and Briggs. (Part I/Chapter 5: A question of size). Retrieved from: http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/students/envs_5110/small_is_beautiful.pdf Nathanael Ramoutar – 214621122 Assignment 3 – What is social responsibility of business? According to Friedman, businesses are not concerned with making profit and therefore they don’t have any responsibility. “A corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial responsibilities, but "business" as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities” 1 The business’ social responsibility is to ensure that there is a profit by using the resources it has and staying within its means and not violating any laws and regulations.2 Social responsibility is to have executives use the company’s money, not his own, to better improve the environment. Being selected by a board of director to represent the shareholders of the company and using the money they invested, imposing taxes, and reporting directly back to them are claims which Friedman also made. Friedman also points out that corporations should not have any social responsibility or then it becomes the government. The government is responsibility for providing a better life for its citizens not a large corporation. Furthermore, corporations would like for the government to stay out of private sector and leave these mega companies to govern themselves and set their own rules as to what’s acceptable or not. While businesses and corporations should be concerned with maximizing its profits, it should also be concerned with the environmental impact it is having on society. Its influence on society would determine how it grows, and contribute its resources. Based on the evidence provide by Friedman, simply on the statement that businesses cannot have responsibility, I would have to disagree with it. Business responsibilities to society are keeping the economy moving. Large corporations cannot sustain a countries economy. It relies on the government to set standards, and small businesses on trade with or it would not be able to sustain its profits and would not exist. 1 Friedman. M (1970). The social responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profit. New York Times Company. New York Times. 2 Friedman. M (1970). The social responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profit. New York Times Company. New York Times. Bibliography Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html Homer-Dixon, T. (2006). The upside of down: Catastrophe, creativity, and the renewal of civilization. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf. Retrieved from: https://moodle.yorku.ca/moodle/pluginfile.php/1480836/mod_resource/content/1/The%20Upside %20of%20Down.pdf Nathanael Ramoutar – 214621122 Assignment 4 – What are the values and assumptions of business strategy? In the Collis and Montgomery reading the assumptions are that companies assets motivates its enactment in a vibrant competitive atmosphere, and they propose an outline that changes the premeditated thinking forward in two ways, the first is determining if a company’s resources are valuable enough to function as the basis, and second, where a company chooses to operate will decide its effectiveness as much as its resources do.1 The resource base view (RBV) is syndicating the breakdown of occurrences inside companies with the knowledge of the industry and the competitive settings. It grows its strength from the capability to describe in clear decision-making terms why some of the competitions are more profitable than others and how to put the awareness of essential capability in repetition, and how to improve diversification strategy that is understood by everyone.2 “No two companies are alike because no two companies have had the same set of experiences; acquire the same assets and skills, or built the same organizational cultures.” 3 This assumption is a reality because companies take different paths to success. Both can sell the same product, and compete against each other but the production, planning, marketing, and strategies are different. Consumers decide base on the brand they are familiar with, also base their decision on price and quality. “A resource that is valuable in a particular industry or at a particular time might fail to have the same value in a different industry.” 4 This is a value assumption based on the face that resources can be valuable if it is utilized in the right way. If a company enters a new industry other than the one it was previously in, it uses its skills and knowledge to convert it current resources to suit the demand, offering new and innovative options to the consumers. Both assumptions identified can be argued based on the principle of whether it works or not. Reality based is assuming the ideas put forward are implemented and work as planned. Value base is using facts and statics to accurately determine the future of the company, and maximize the profit. For a business plan to succeed, reality and value assumption should balance each other and not compete. 1 Collis, D. J. Montgomery, C. A. (2008). https://hbr.org/2008/07/competing-on-resources Collis, David and Cynthia A. Montgomery (1995), "Competing on Resources: Strategy in the 1990s," Harvard Business Review, 73 (July-August), pp.118-128http://staffweb.ncnu.edu.tw/clhung/MOT/papers/8.pdf 3 Collis, D. J. Montgomery, C. A. "Competing on Resources: Strategy in the 1990s," Harvard Business Review, 73 (July-August), pp.118-128http://staffweb.ncnu.edu.tw/clhung/MOT/papers/8.pdf 4 Collis, D. J. Montgomery, C. A. "Competing on Resources: Strategy in the 1990s," Harvard Business Review, 73 (July-August), pp.118-128http://staffweb.ncnu.edu.tw/clhung/MOT/papers/8.pdf 2 Bibliography Collis, D. J. Montgomery, C. A. (2008). Competing on Resources. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2008/07/competing-on-resources Collis, David and Cynthia A. Montgomery (1995), "Competing on Resources: Strategy in the 1990s," Harvard Business Review, 73 (July-August), pp.118-128. Retrieved from: http://staffweb.ncnu.edu.tw/clhung/MOT/papers/8.pdf Roscoe, P. (2014). I Spend Therefore I Am: How Economics Has Changed the Way We Think and Feel. Random House Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/200193723/I-Spend-Therefore-I-Am-by-Philip-RoscoeExcerpt#scribd Nathanael Ramoutar – 214621122 Assignment 5: Does the claim hold water? In the article written by Robert Kaplan and David Norton ‘The Balanced Scorecard: Measures that Drive Performance’ they state that managers don’t like making decisions between operational and financial measures.1 Both authors developed a system that makes this decision easier called the ‘balanced scorecard’ of 4 divisions that includes financial perspective, customer perspective, internal perspective, and learning and growth perspective.2 Together these perspectives act as a guideline of how managers should make decisions. Each perspective deals with a different element of the company’s operation. The financial aspect deals with investment from shareholders, profitability, and growth.3 The customer feature is based on the relationship a company has with its clients in satisfactory services provided and how to improve to make it better. Customers’ concern fall into four categories: time, quality, performance and service, and cost.4 A company can develop these concerns to make customer relations better. The internal facet is based on producing the customers’ needs efficiently. “The internal measure should stem from business process that has greater impact on customer satisfaction factors that affect cycle time, quality, employee skills, and productivity.” 5 The learning and growth aspect is continuing to provide such services and improving on them as demands of the customers change. “Intense global competition requires that companies make continual improvements to their existing products and processes and have the ability to introduce entirely new products with expanded capabilities. A company’s ability to innovate, improve, and learn ties directly to the company’s value.”6 A company that uses this balanced scorecard has to develop a business plan, similar to a marketing plan, where the goals that needs to be achieved and process of achieving them is carefully planned out to ensure the company has success. 1 Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (1992). The Balanced Scorecard--Measures That Drive Performance. Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/2005/07/the-balanced-scorecard-measures-that-drive-performance 2 Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (1992). The Balanced Scorecard--Measures That Drive Performance. Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/2005/07/the-balanced-scorecard-measures-that-drive-performance 3 Kaplan, R. S. Norton, D. P. (1992). The Balanced Scorecard--Measures That Drive Performance. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from www.alnap.org/pool/files/balanced-scorecard.pdf 4 Kaplan, R. S. Norton, D. P. (1992). The Balanced Scorecard--Measures That Drive Performance. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from www.alnap.org/pool/files/balanced-scorecard.pdf 5 Kaplan, R. S. Norton, D. P. (1992). The Balanced Scorecard--Measures That Drive Performance. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from www.alnap.org/pool/files/balanced-scorecard.pdf 6 Kaplan, R. S. Norton, D. P. (1992). The Balanced Scorecard--Measures That Drive Performance. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from www.alnap.org/pool/files/balanced-scorecard.pdf In Peter Bakker’s article ‘Accountants will save the world’ the claim he is making is that accountants who do desk work in an office every day are able to change the world. “At the same time we live in a world where every six seconds a child dies from hunger despite there being enough food in the world to prevent it.”7 The specialized backing and support from TNT and its employees volunteering their time made the world food program purpose improved. The company, while working with the United Nations, saw its returns on investment in the form of its employees being proud of the company and willing to contribute, and seeing the reputation TNT enhanced immensely. TNT focused on social capital, as opposed to Friedman’s claim of a company whose only responsibility should be on maximizing its profit and not focusing on social responsibility. With volunteer time, companies don’t have any way of reporting this on their financial statements, because the United Nations is a not for profit organization. Also investors of TNT are aware of volunteering time employees are putting in, and are only concerned with profit margins of TNT. “For every robust, time-tested measure of return on financial capital, we need another for social capital the economic benefits that derive from cooperation among groups, and yet another for natural capital the supply of natural ecosystems (think forests, oceans, mineral deposits) that we turn into valuable goods or services future.”8 Volunteering your time and companies working on social responsibility and end hunger, starvation, and suffering around the world. “If business wants to restore societies’ trust, businesses must be more transparent and acknowledge that the resources we exploit or conserve and the social benefits we engender or lose, must be factored into a company’s value and thus into day-to-day management.”9 Corporations needs to acknowledge that its methods which it uses to extract raw materials to produce its products that society demands must also has a negative side of disrupting people, and should commit time and effort to restoring and helping the people that are affected by such actions. 7 Bakker. P (2013) Accountants will save the world. Harvard Business Reviewed. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2013/03/accountants-will-save-the-worl/ 8 Bakker. P (2013) Accountants will save the world. Harvard Business Reviewed. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2013/03/accountants-will-save-the-worl/ 9 Bakker. P (2013) Accountants will save the world. Harvard Business Reviewed. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2013/03/accountants-will-save-the-worl/ Reference Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (1992). The Balanced Scorecard--Measures That Drive Performance. Harvard Business Review, Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2005/07/the-balanced-scorecard-measures-that-drive-performance Kaplan, R. S. Norton, D. P. (1992). The Balanced Scorecard--Measures That Drive Performance. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: www.alnap.org/pool/files/balanced-scorecard.pdf Bakker. P (2013) Accountants will save the world. Harvard Business Reviewed. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2013/03/accountants-will-save-the-worl/ Korten, D. C. (2001). When Corporations Rule the World. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, Inc. (Chapter 13: The money game, and Chapter 14: Predatory finance) Retrieved from: https://moodle.yorku.ca/moodle/pluginfile.php/1480842/mod_resource/content/1/When%20Corp orations%20Rule%20the%20World.pdf Nathanael Ramoutar – 214621122 Assignment 6 - Are you convinced? In Caitlin Rosenthal’s article: Plantations Practiced Modern Management; her claim is that scientific management started on these plantations during the slavery era in America and was recorded on books and not in the factories that historians suspected they had started. “These documents show that plantations used highly sophisticated accounting practices more consistently than many contemporary northern factories, which are often considered the birthplace of modern management.”1 The evidence provided by her research seems to suggest that modern management did in fact begin as slave owners were recording the events and productivity of their slaves and classifying them into specific groups. “They assigned certain capabilities to the prime hand, such as expected production per day. Workers were measured against this standard and given values such as “half hand” and “quarter hand.”2 In Joan Magretta’s article: Fast, Global, and Entrepreneurial: Supply Chain Management, Hong Kong Style, shows an example of Li & Fung and the changing industry of Asia. The company expanded into mainland China where labor cost was cheap and establish offices in countries where the labor market is low. The company used several strategic to transform its dying industry into a successful public company.3 The first stage carried out was expanding across Asia, into markets like Taiwan and Korea. Knowing the region, and its suppliers, gave Li & Fung an advantage over competitors. The second stage was ensuring the customers that Li & Kung had the capabilities to deliver any request. The third stage was outsourcing the labor sector to reduce the cost of production but also keep a high quality of produce, and test the final stages. 4 “Supply chain management strips away time and cost from product delivery cycles and is about buying the right things and shortening the delivery cycles”5 Supply chain management overviews the movement of information, service, and materials that makes a company’s responsible to customers, and suppliers continue moving and expanding. 1 Rosenthal. C (2013). Plantations Practiced Modern Management. Harvard Business Review. Rosenthal. C (2013). Plantations Practiced Modern Management. Harvard Business Review. 3 Magretta. J (1998). Fast, Global, and Entrepreneurial: Supply Chain Management, Hong Kong Style. Harvard Business Review 4 Magretta. J (1998). Fast, Global, and Entrepreneurial: Supply Chain Management, Hong Kong Style. Harvard Business Review 5 Magretta. J (1998). Fast, Global, and Entrepreneurial: Supply Chain Management, Hong Kong Style. Harvard Business Review 2 Reference Rosenthal. C (2013). Plantations Practiced Modern Management. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2013/09/plantations-practiced-modern-management Magretta. J (1998). Fast, Global, and Entrepreneurial: Supply Chain Management, Hong Kong Style. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved form: https://hbr.org/1998/09/fast-global-and-entrepreneurial-supply-chain-management-hong-kongstyle Nathanael Ramoutar – 214621122 Assignment 7 – How Effective are incentives? Incentive- “something that incites or tends to incite to action or greater effort, as a reward offered for increased productivity.”1 Incentives are used to reward people for their hard work on projects. Incentives can be anything from bonuses to vacation time and even promotion. Employees are usually unhappy with the work they do or career that they are in because of many factors including irritating bosses, lower than expected salaries, uncomfortable working environment, and imprudent rules.2 Bad management and environmental issues create the opportunity for people to be despondent. According to Herzberg, if all these issues were to be corrected it still doesn’t inspire people increase their effort. “People are motivated, instead, by interesting work, challenge, and increasing responsibility. These intrinsic factors answer people’s deep-seated need for growth and achievement.”3 Herzberg outlines his theory of employment satisfaction and dissatisfaction into two categories that are labeled Hygiene factors and Motivator factor. Hygiene factor affects the dissatisfaction of the job and deals with supervision, status, interpersonal relationships, salary, working conditions, company rules and management, and security. Motivator factors touches on the satisfaction side of employment and deals with growth, recognition for achievement, responsibility, achievement, advancement, and the work itself. 4 In Sandel’s article and video, he begins to question society and its loves for money by saying that in the modern era, market standards have congested out nonmarket customs in every feature of life, we have drifted from having a market economy to being a market society.5 The knowledge we have on the systems we follow and look to have not changed in and we continue to rely on it because it worked in the past. The role of markets in a modern society is to enrich and motivate us to improve our lives and should have limits to its influence on our society. Incentives help to ensure that work gets done efficiently and that people are not being taken advantage of. It gives people an addition goal to strive towards to be more productive and more valuable to any organisation they may join. While some may disagree with incentives and argue that it increases the company’s expenses, it improves the quality of work and attracts the best qualified people. 1 Dictionay.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/incentive Herzberg. F. (2003). One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review. 3 Herzberg. F. (2003). One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review. 4 Sterne. B. (2012). A review of “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees by Frederick Herzberg. 5 Sandel. M. (2012) What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets? 2 Reference Dictionay.com. Retrieved from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/incentive Herzberg. F (2003). One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2003/01/one-more-time-how-do-you-motivate-employees Sterne. B. (2012). A review of “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees by Frederick Herzberg. Retrieved from: http://brendansterne.com/2012/11/25/a-review-of-one-more-time-how-do-you-motivate/ Sandel. M. (2012) What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets. Retrieved from: http://us.macmillan.com/whatmoneycantbuy/michaeljsandel Nathanael Ramoutar – 214621122 Marketing for good or for ill? In marketing myopia, Theodore Levitt argues that companies are only concerned with products and services and not what consumer’s wants and need. To demonstrate his theory, he uses the example of the railroad industry. The railroad industry thought they were in the railroad business and not the transportation business, and did not branch out and allowed additional industry to take away its objective of moving goods and people1. Another example he provides is of the oil companies and how they thought of themselves as energy providers and devoted all their efforts to petroleum.2 Today, corporation are only interested in its day to day operations and fail to look ahead of incoming situations. He states that if companies were to focus on satisfying customers, they can recognize a need and can be different from the competition and in doing so they will have a competitive advantage. ‘No logo’, written by Naomi Klein, she states that the modern expansion of brands is that organizations should mainly produce brands, and not merchandises. The intensification of branding and its part in the development of corporate control as well as fluctuations in labor and the environment of work all contribute to success of the company. “The first mass-marketing campaigns, starting in the second half of the nineteenth century, had more to do with advertising than with branding as we understand it today.”3 To attract new buyers, companies must push drastic eye catching campaigns to draw attention to any product it produces. Big brands like Walmart, Gap, Sears, and Loblaw’s rely on its prestige to push product. The association of the brand name and its popularity with the region it serves in addition to the merchandise they market are corporate strategies uses to increase revenue and keep operation cost down. 1 Levitt. T. (2004) Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2004/07/marketing-myopia Levitt. T. (2004) Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2004/07/marketing-myopia 3 Klein. N. (2000) No logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies. New York Times. Chapter One https://www.nytimes.com/books/first/k/klein-logo.html 2 References Levitt. T. (2004) Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2004/07/marketing-myopia Klein. N. (2000) No logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies. New York Times. Chapter One. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/books/first/k/klein-logo.html Nathanael Ramoutar – 214621122 Assignment 9: Where are we headed? The future of businesses is uncertain because of the many threats they face. Some threats may be political, environmental, or lack of vision as to the future of the corporation. In the discipline of innovation written by Peter Drucker he explains that “innovation is real work, and it can and should be managed like any other corporate function”1 For a company to be successful it must constantly innovate, look at new trends, and give consumer what they want. To do this, concepts must be drawn from inside the company such as unexpected outcomes, development needs, incongruities, and industry and market changes. Innovation can also be taken from outside a company in its social and intellectual environment: demographic changes, changes in perception, and new knowledge.2 Changes in any of these classifications affect how innovation is developed and nurtured into great ideas; some will be implemented but eventually replaced with more sustainable and reliable methods. The Knowledge Creating Company written by Ikujiro Nonaka, “Understanding knowledge creation as a process of making tacit knowledge explicit a matter of metaphors, analogies, and models has direct implications for how a company designs its organization and defines managerial roles and responsibilities within it.”3 One problem that companies faces is that knowledge may be redundant. Idleness is essential since it emboldens frequent discussions and communication. One way to shape redundancy is to complete intentional rotation, particularly amongst different areas of technology and between functions such as R&D and marketing. Free access to company information also helps build redundancy.4 To improve the knowledge of information that is required to develop, the working environment has to change to allow people the freedom to access the information. 1 Drucker. P (2002).The discipline of Innovation. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2002/08/the-disciplineof-innovation 2 Drucker. P (2002).The discipline of Innovation. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2002/08/the-disciplineof-innovation 3 Nonaka, I. (2007). The Knowledge Creating Company. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2007/07/theknowledge-creating-company 4 Nonaka, I. (2007). The Knowledge Creating Company. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2007/07/theknowledge-creating-company Reference Drucker. P (2002).The Discipline of Innovation. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2002/08/the-discipline-of-innovation Nonaka, I. (2007). The Knowledge Creating Company. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2007/07/the-knowledge-creating-company Nathanael Ramoutar – 214621122 Assignment 10 - Best ideas for the next management century? ‘The Management Century’ written by Walter Kiechel, details the history of management and its beginning in Chicago during the late1880’s. In the decades to follow, three of the best ideas for the next management century outlined in the article are strategic thinking, applying humanistic psychology to social institution, and leadership and innovation. Strategic thinking is important for the next management century because “every company has a strategy and every executive a set of key objectives.”1 The organisation and its management team have to achieve not just reflexive, adaptive performance; they have to take charge and endeavour to change the industry and its surroundings. Managers must also persuade the boundaries of economic conditions on the enterprise’s autonomy of accomplishment. Applying humanistic psychology to social institution helps management build better employees. “The overall thrust of the postwar managerial thinkers was to elevate the “humanity of production.” Workers will be most productive, the reasoning went, if they’re respected and if managers rely on them to motivate themselves and solve problems on their own.”2 Leadership and innovation is nourishing the aggressive burdens of the marketplace to be contingent on producing the finest from the mortality of manufacturing. “Innovation invites less controversy. Both humanists and numbers people recognize its critical, company-saving importance in an era when new rivals can emerge suddenly from nowhere, industry leadership can change hands in a trice, and competitive advantages once thought unassailable are eroded in months.”3 The main encounter overlooking present and future companies’ remains towards actually permitting the incentive of society’s resourcefulness after the establishment's tidal appeal concerning its state of affairs. There's practically an enhanced method, and management’s determination and persistence will find it. 1 Kiechel. W (2012). The Management Century. Harvard Business Review. Kiechel. W (2012). The Management Century. Harvard Business Review. 3 Kiechel. W (2012). The Management Century. Harvard Business Review. 2 Reference Kiechel. W (2012). The Management Century. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2012/11/the-management-century

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